With more free trade agreements (SAAs) than any other country, Mexico serves as a strong export hub for its American neighbor and the world. Mexico is a trading partner with more than 50 countries, with agreements that extend to Europe, South America and Africa. These agreements remove barriers to trade, including customs duties and import quotas, in order to establish close cooperation on trade in goods and services. This trading bloc was formed in 2011 by Mexico, Chile, Colombia and Peru and has 55 observer states. It covers a total population of 225 million and accounts for 38 per cent of foreign direct investment in the region. When the North American Free Trade Agreement came into force on January 1, 1994, it began to remove most tariffs on trade between Mexico, Canada and the United States. NAFTA establishes rules allowing duty-free trade in products of which 60% of production comes from North America. It has also streamlined border regulation and reduced other barriers to cross-border activity and set out rules on the environment, labour issues and intellectual property rights. The CPTPP was signed in March 2018 and ratified by Mexico until December 2018. Once ratified by all the countries concerned, the CPTPP will constitute a trading bloc covering 495 million consumers and 13.5% of global GDP. The CPTPP largely eliminates tariffs in all sectors. Once all Member States have ratified the Agreement, 99% of tariff headings among CPTPP participants will be exempt from customs duties.

The Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement includes measures related to market access, tariff quotas, anti-dumping and countervailing duties, rules of origin, customs procedures, dispute settlement, government procurement, intellectual property rights, investment, protective measures, sanitary and phytosanitary provisions, technical regulations and technical barriers to trade. . . .